What are stem cells

What are Stem Cell? Stem cells have an impressive capacity to turn into lots of different types of cells during early life and growth. In addition, in numerous tissues they function as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the possible either to stay a stem cell or become another kind of cell with a more customised function, such as a muscle cell, a red cell, or a brain cell.

What are stem cells? Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by 2 important attributes:

  • they are unspecialised cells efficient in restoring themselves through cellular division, often after extended periods of inactivity.
  • under specific physiologic or speculative conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with unique functions.

In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells routinely divide to repair and replace broken or harmed tissues. In other organs, nevertheless, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells just divide under special conditions.

Till recently, researchers primarily worked with 2 kinds of stem cells from animals and human beings: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic “somatic” or “adult” stem cells. The functions and qualities of these cells will be discussed later. Researchers found ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago. The detailed research study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a technique to obtain stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the lab. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos utilised in these research studies were developed for reproductive functions through invitro fertilisation treatments. When they were no longer required for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed authorisation of the donor.

In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would permit some specialised adult cells to be “reprogrammed” genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This brand-new type of stem cell called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), will be talked about in a later section of this document.

Why are Stem Cells Important